DISSERTATION LE CACAO EN COTE DIVOIRE

The predominantly clear summer average of 9 h daily sunshine and the cloudy winter average of 5 h daily sunshine regulate, to a great extent, the behavior of microclimatic parameters above and inside a cacao plantation. The decrease in diffusive resistance and increase of water loss at the I-1 stage coincide with the period of higher ABA levels in leaves of the new as well as previous older flushes Orchard et al. In the interflush the stock of carbohydrates is reestablished and, with the return of a favorable balance, the appearance of a new flush can occur Machado and Hardwick, Specifically in regions with low access to inorganic fertilizers, the multistrata plantation is used to maintain soil fertility with the subsequent increase in nutrient availability for cacao Isaac et al. These hormonal responses occur before the interaction pollinic tube-ovule suggesting the existence of an incompatibility system influenced by auxin Hasenstein and Zavada,

Page 1 sur 4. Alvim considered that harvest can be influenced by the rain distribution that occurred six months before its beginning. You are commenting using your Google account. Ng E Potential cacao photosynthetic productivity. According to Leite and Cadima Zevallos , the elevation and residence of the water table promote the increase and maintenance of humidity levels above the subsurface of the soil, a zone in which the cacao root system concentrates in traditional cacao cropping areas. Furthermore, in that area the mean air temperature at the eighth week, and solar radiation and insolation of the ninth week exert great influence on flushing, while the period of decreasing energy solar radiation, temperature and PDD coincides with the months in which no flushing occurs Almeida et al.

Leite, ; unpublished results.

However, on a sunny day both trees showed a substantial difference in transpiration when compared with a cloudy day. This group is comprised of varieties that produce fruits pods with thick, white or pinkish seeds that yield more flavored seeds and fine chocolates Marita et al. Although hermaphrodite, cacao flowers have anthers covered by petals and, without the intervention of insects, mainly Forcipomyia sp Diptera: Sale PJM Growth, flowering, and fruiting of cacao under controlled soil moisture conditions.

Atsi Lepierre, a cocoa’s grower, have been interviewed by CCTV America and gives his point of view about the situation, he says: According to Hasenstein and Zavadathis would explain the low concentration of endogenous auxin in clones with high flower productions high-flower producers.

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The high degree of significance of this function is due to the fact that PDD represents the joint effects of energy and water. Cerato-pogonidaepollination would be impaired since the viscous pollen does not come into contact with the stigma spontaneously Dias et al.

Since flower production represents a considerable plant investment Valle et al. Cacao seedlings show increasing rates of net photosynthesis A as the photosynthetically active radiation PAR increases to values in the range from near Joly, to Da Matta et al. According to Gognimo Koney, who’s the Cocoa Growers’ Association President, the danger is very high as their growers are walking in the bush and the virus comes from wild animals.

Only at the eighth or 10th year after planting do the trees express their productivity potential Dias and Kageyama, The geographical origin of cacao is South America Motamayor et al.

Removal of mature leaves produces modifications in that balance; therefore, after defoliation, ABA level in the apical bud decreases, while cytokinins content increases considerably Alvim and Alvim, During flush activity a variable number of leaves is produced in fast succession, which expand very quickly Baker and Hardwick, According to Owusuthere is a close relationship between these physiological processes and carbohydrates in cacao.

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The higher base temperatures of Daymond and Hadley were probably due to the fact that their studies were conducted under conditions of low irradiance, while the studies by Alvim were carried out under field conditions.

This position is maintained for the rest of the leaf’s life Abo-Hamed et al. UK, University of Liverpool.

Furthermore, extended exposition to high light intensities damages the leaf photosynthetic mechanism Cavao Harun and Hardwick, a. Sustainability certifications are rapidly growing in the cacao sector, and tropical agriculture more broadly.

For cacao grown in southeastern Bahia the flowering, fruiting and pod growth patterns show low flushing in June to September Cazorla et al.

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Trinidad for resistance enn Phytophthora pod rot. The evaluation of fine root growth of cacao trees, studied under field conditions, has been very much limited to static inventory data, for example, assessment of biomass at a given moment in time Beer et al.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

It is cropped under the shade of forest trees or as a monocrop without shade. For most genotypes drought resistance is associated with osmotic adjustment.

Bartley BGD The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization. The percentage of flowers setting pods is in the range 0. Furthermore, in that area the mean air temperature at the eighth week, and solar radiation and insolation of the ninth week exert great influence on flushing, while the period of decreasing energy solar radiation, temperature and Cqcao coincides with the months in which no flushing occurs Almeida et al.

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This hypothesis was confirmed by Abo-Hamed et al. The fluctuation of the water table can be considered a climatic variable derived from rainfall that can influence cacao production as a form of natural sub-irrigation Leite and Valle, Low chl content and high anthocyanin pigmentation of expanding leaves also contribute to maintain relatively low leaf temperature and, together with the presence of relatively dense hair cover on the leaf surface, may contribute to further decrease transpiration rates Abo-Hamed et al.

The predominantly clear summer average of 9 h daily sunshine and the cloudy winter average of 5 h daily sunshine regulate, to a great extent, the behavior of microclimatic parameters above and inside a cacao plantation. The maximum value found at the beginning of the rainy season was 1.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

The increase at all irradiances tested occurred in the presence of up to 10 mM of N, but above that concentration it leveled off.